Io e Pirandello (Italian Edition)
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According to Brancato, disorder frequently occurred at harvest time, with the peasants, "avviliti" and, as Pirandello himself had declared, in I vecchi e i giouani, incapable of organizing themselves, regularly being led by representatives of the "classe artigiana" Brancato In a broader context, it will be recalled that Unification, far from bringing the promised benefits for the peasants, including the distribution to them of land owned by the Church and the latifondisti, had led to an actual deterioration in their lot, with good land being bought up by entrepreneurial individuals like don Lollo and Verga's Mastrodon Gesualdo.
Critical theory since then, however, has tended to reject the notion of a single interpretation for the literary text let alone the term "penetration" as an appropriate metaphor for the task of the critic! Whether the text is referred to as "open" Umberto Eco or "polysemous" Barthes and Kristeva , its capacity to evoke different responses in different groups of readers, and at different times, is seen as a crucial feature of its literariness. In Barthes's words, the text is no longer regarded as.
Even when written fixed , it does not stop working, maintaining a process of production. And reception theorist Hans Robert [auss maintains that the same text will, legitimately, be read in rather different ways at different historical moments, because each generation of readers brings different concerns to the reading process. These general claims acquire specific point when applied to short texts such as poems and short stories, which can be displayed in a variety of different settings, or, to adopt Barthes's metaphor, be performed in a variety of theatrical environments.
To view "La giara" in the setting in which it first appeared, the issue of the Milan newspaper Corrieredella sera of the 20th October , is a fascinating experience. Pirandello's collaboration with that paper, edited by Luigi Albertini, had begun only two weeks before, with the publication of "Mondo di carta"l? It was to last the rest of his life during which 72 of his stories appeared in the Corriere della sera , ending only with the publication, on 9th December , the day before his death, of "Effetti d'un sogno interrotto.
To the modem reader, accustomed to bulky daily newspapers with numerous supplements, literary and commercial, it is surprising to realize just how prominently Pirandello's little story figured. It fully occupied the first three columns of six on page 3 of an eight-page issue.
Occupying the other three columns are: There are only two news stories in the whole issue, which loom as large as Pirandello's story, and "La giara" would have had a certain resonance with both of them. The major front-page story reports "L' improvvisa morte di Cesare Lombroso a Torino," and conveys tributes to the renowned psychiatrist and founder of the discipline of criminal anthropology.
The extended discussion of his work, with its emphasis on the relation between behavior, including insanity and criminality, and physical characteristics, including skull-shape and concepts of race, would have given a certain piquancy to Pirandelle's description of don Lollo as resembling various animals. On the basis of his observation, in , of a similarity between the skullshape of a certain brigand, Vilella, and that of the anthropoid apes, Lombroso had developed a theory, which subsequently became very influential, about the criminal tendencies of individuals who showed the closest links to their animal ancestors.
Of relevance, too, would have been Lombroso's political position, radical-democratic, then non-Marxist socialist. Lombroso had written extensively on the political-social situation in Sicily, attributing the rapid spread of socialism on the island to the mixture of races and the influence of the climate, as well as the scandalous economic and social injustice which prevailed Sciascia It is interesting to see that Albertini's Corriere della sera, accurately described by Gaspare Giudice as a newspaper"di tipo moderato, liberale e conservatore" , is unstinting in its appreciation of this considerably more radical figure of the period.
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Nevertheless, for the first readers of Pirandello's story, there would have been a much more direct resonance with the second major news item in the newspaper that day: There is an editorial about the visit on the front page and a long interview on page 4 with the socialist leader Bonomi. The editorial position was that, however unsavory his tyrannical regime was, the Italian government was obliged to deal with the Tsar, as the force actually governing that major nation.
Bonomi's position, fully and not unsympathetically reported, was that the suffering to which the Tsar subjected his people made it indefensible for him to be welcomed to the country. The first readers of "La giara" could hardly have failed to notice the comictragic parallel between the petty tyranny, at village level, of don Lollo and the tyranny, at national and international level, of the Russian autocrat.
From that perspective, Zi' Dima's victory over the rural tyrant in Pirandello's story must have seemed all the sweeter. Incidentally, concern about authoritarian oppression was by no means limited, in this issue of Corriere della sera, to discussion of the Russian case. There is a long article, on page 2, about the treatment by the Spanish government of anarchists, and the execution less than a month before of Francisco Ferrer y Guardia, the influential anarchist educator, accused, without evidence, of leading an insurrection, about which there had been protests in several European countries.
While the juxtaposition of Pirandello's story with the visit of the Tsar could only have been serendipitous, the modem reader gains a strong sense, in scanning this issue of the paper, of the general unacceptability of such oppression, and of the story as participating in an ongoing debate about the means by which tyrants may be undermined or overthrown.
Much of the rest of the content of the Corriere della sera for 20 October would have conveyed to the first readers of "La giara" a sense of just how archaic and provincial was the world in which the story was set. There are numerous references to developments in communications and transport technology, and to the radical transformations they were bringing to Italian life.
There is a story on page 1 about the establishing of a phone link through Trieste still part of the Austrian Empire , through Austria to Germany, and an indication is given for several news stories that they have been received by cable or by telephone. There is a report on page 3, in the column adjacent to "La giara" of a spectacular flight over Paris by the French aviator De Lambert, which is seen as being comparable in significance to Bleriot's flight across the Channel.
The Late Mattia Pascal by Luigi Pirandello | LibraryThing
And, on page 6, there is a small story about an air display over Blackpool, England. Sette racconti - Alberto Moravia. Nuove avventure con Montalbano - Andrea Camilleri. Be the first to review this product. Only registered users can write reviews. Please, log in or register.
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La Creazione del Vero: Il maggior teatro di Pirandello. Giacomo Leopardi: Poesia, pensiero, ricezione. Atti del convegno internazionale di Barcellona. Insula, Russell, Rinaldina, ed. The Feminist Encyclopedia of Italian Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,