Amours, sévices et orgues (French Edition)
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Language: French. Brand New Book. Date de l edition originale: Sujet de l ouvrage: Alencon France Appartient a l ensemble documentaire: BNormand1Ce livre est la reproduction fidele d une oeuvre publiee avant et fait partie d une collection de livres reimprimes a la demande editee par Hachette Livre, dans le cadre d un partenariat avec la Bibliotheque nationale de France, offrant l opportunite d acceder a des ouvrages anciens et souvent rares issus des fonds patrimoniaux de la BnF.
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Pour plus d informations, rendez-vous sur. From: Bouquinerie du languedoc Montpellier, France. These studies apply international standards and policies for infrastructure projects the directives are available on the internet site www. The studies of the World Commission on Dams cited above and those of the anthropologists Scudder and Cernea , , , on forced population displacements complete the critical framework.
Good communication with the populations potentially affected by the construction of an infrastructure is of the utmost importance. It helps avoid delays in the completion of structures and limits negative reactions during the expropriation and resettlement phases. It also prevents feelings of frustration, which can be passed on to future generations, as witnessed in the interviews conducted at Bort-les-Orgues and Tignes.
It helps give a dam a positive identity from a human point of view. Furthermore, the authorities are not asked by the institutions to take into consideration the impact on local populations, but rather the opposite. The strategy may be summarised as follows: "Personal contacts consisted in obtaining local support among deputies members of parliament and departmental councillors" p. There was no real policy of consultation, a shortcoming that continued even after the creation of EDF French Electricity Authority in Decisions were "top-down" as opposed to "bottom-up" or participative, which developed much later in the s.
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For the four dams in question, the most frequent questions dealt with expropriations, the re-establishment of the means of road and rail links to ensure the opening up of the region, and sometimes the actual justification for the dam itself as in Tignes, where 77 written interventions went as far as to deny the legal validity of the operation Bodon, p. There was no real dialogue set up by any institutional organisation to allow the public to participate in decisions. Today this would be compulsory. Nevertheless, in some areas it may be observed that certain prefects representing the State endeavoured to put forward the views of locally elected officials who reflected far better the opinion of the local populations.
This was the case in Bort-les-Orgues, but much less so in Tignes.
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The inhabitants of the valley remember the last train in May , and several mayors in the region keep a photograph of it in their office. Many inhabitants who remember the train still harbour feelings of resentment towards the French Electricity Authority EDF for having deprived them of their rail service to Paris. During the surveys conducted , they pointed out that this matter is still before the High Court Council of State and they believe that this is the only reason why the dam at Bort has never been officially inaugurated Faure, in press a and b.
However, this has been but scant consolation since the majority of the local population left the valley when it was flooded to form Lake Chevril, depriving them of the pasturelands necessary for their stock-rearing activities. In fact it was a prerequisite for their survival since before the construction of the railway and the D road, the Ubaye valley was one of the most isolated regions of France, particularly in winter when the mountain passes are blocked by snow.
There were demonstrations for the reconstruction of the Chorges-Espinasses link in April and the association of mayors of the Hautes-Alpes department organised an administrative strike in September The failure to restore this rail link meant the end of Ubaye, as the inhabitants refused to move their village knowing that they would lose their economic links with outside markets. Emigration, which had stopped during the time the rail link existed, began again.
But the rail links were not reconstructed which caused enormous economic harm locally. The authorities relied exclusively on the capacity of road transport to meet local needs, and this took time to take over from the railway.
Today, worldwide, the restoration of communication links and the construction of infrastructures to open up areas are among the most important budgetary items in Action Plans and Reinstallation Plans. They make it possible to reduce the risks of impoverishment caused by major development schemes Scudder, , p.
Paroisse Saint-Eustache - Au cœur des Halles à Paris
International policies should therefore insist more on the restoration of communication links. At the moment, they are failing in this respect. For each site, provision was also made for relocating the cemetery along with the remains of the deceased to a place chosen by each family, accompanied by the construction of a new chapel Ubaye and Port-Dieu or the reconstruction of the church that was destroyed Savines and Tignes. They were more the result of lack of planning regarding the treatment of the population living in the basins of the future lakes, in particular the question of compensation for expropriation, and the reconstruction of the villages that were to be flooded.
The choice of the new site must therefore be known sufficiently in advance for the inhabitants to be able to build there before abandoning their expropriated property Bodon, , p. It was only in Savines that the inhabitants knew sufficiently ahead of time where to build. In Tignes and the Bort valley, the situation regarding the new site was far less clear so that the residents of the former were obliged to remain on their property and defend their interests in a state of uncertainty, while those of the latter had to leave the valley.
In addition to the lack of communication underlined at the beginning of this article, there was also this problem of inhabitants being treated as secondary considerations compared with the structures to be built. Apart from items such as doors and windows that inhabitants were able to salvage, everything else was lost when the area was flooded. Drainage operations are the occasion for a real pilgrimage among former residents who return to watch different parts of the Saint-Projet monastery and village of Nauzenac reappear almost intact a few kilometres downstream of the dam Faure, in press a et b.
Ubaye was then a village of about ten shops and inhabitants, most of who said very little in the public inquiry conducted in that year.
The only reaction has already been noted: the need for restoration of transport links flooded by the reservoir. The proceeds from the sale of this property, not included in the expropriation zone, were shared among the inhabitants. Their insistence led to the creation of an Inter-ministerial Commission on methods of land consolidation in the village of Port-Dieu, in August But the official declaration of the creation of the new municipality of Port-Dieu at Confolent in came too late. The inhabitants expected by the Municipal Council were reduced to only 40, although more than people had left the Bort valley.
EDF agreed to build a chapel for Confolent-Port-Dieu in April , and exhumation and reburial operations were organised. The mayor of Confolent-Port-Dieu, who was only 16 years-old at the time, described how an oxcart was used for these operations, as there were no lorries or tractors available in this period just after the Second World War Faure, in press a et b.
The residents came up against the same difficulty as those of the Bort valley in trying to find out where the administrative centre of the municipality would be rebuilt. There were two possibilities for Tignes, these being to rebuild either at Hameau des Boisses or in the area of alpine pastures. The first solution would allow inhabitants to remain near their old village, or more exactly on the slopes above Lake Chevril, created by the large dam.
The village would be moved seven or eight kilometres, to a plateau of alpine pastures. For the residents, however, whatever the site chosen, the abandoning of their fertile valley and its production activities would mean the end of pastoral farming which had provided most of them a living. The bi-seasonal activity where winter stock-rearing with hay in the valley alternated with summer transhumance in the alpine pastures would be definitively wiped out by the future Lake Chevril.
The older residents also feared that the community would become dispersed Varaschin, , p. For those who are displaced as part of a dispersion movement as opposed to those who settle in a rebuilt district or village , the loss of community life leads to a loss of status and cultural identity. The marginalisation caused by this form of displacement is a sensitive subject for anthropologists, who recommend keeping populations together when moving them Scudder, , p. This prospect of dispersion, which was difficult to accept for most inhabitants of Tignes, encouraged denial of the reality of the forthcoming flooding of the valley.
The resistance of residents was reinforced by the incoherence and lack of transparency in the management of land expropriation. At the moment of flooding, a large proportion of those whose property had been expropriated had still not received any compensation and did not know where to go.
Only a few months separated the government decision to rebuild in the hamlet of Boisses and the announcement of flooding. A series of problems followed, bearing witness to the malaise and exasperation of the residents of Tignes: transfer of the archives was carried out under the threat of a battalion of riot troops CRS , in the presence of the prefect and sub-prefect Bodon, , p. The transfer of graves became a very sensitive question and was only completed several days after the start of flooding Varaschin, , p.